I deal from an expliciitly heald set of principles and ideas. Both cooloquially and in normally used terms, this set of principles and ideas is called "Philosophy" and the contents thereof are the "root" of all of this. Attempting to discuss any of this without an introduction to philosophy as a subject is like talking about Buzz Corry, the Terra V or Terra City without mentioning Space Patrol. So; let's get it on! It's not as scary as all that.

Philosphy has come to mean many things.

There is a practical, day-to-day side of Philosophy that most pseudo-intellectuals hate becuase it brings it into the realm of the ordinary person, whom they feel sooooo superior to, despite the fact that they wouldn't know how to tie their shoes if they weren't told (by ordinary persons and nothing is more pathetic than someone with a 200 IQ who is beholden to Joe Gotnosheepskin to do the small things). It frames how we think, look at the world and behave. Like all persons, I operate with a philosophical system. Unlike most, I am fully aware of it I will not get into that here, this is not the proper place for it. However, I will give an outline of the subjects of Philosophy so that you can learn your way around it. In essence, to set the table
METAPHYSICS: How does the World work? in gnereal rather than specifically scientific terms.
EPISTEMOLOGY: What do I know, and how do I know it? What consitutes valid knownledge and by what method is it gotten?
ETHICS: How can I tell right from wrong? and evaluate situations in those terms? The parameters of the Moral Calculus rather than the contents
POLITICS: How are we to be governed?
ESTHETICS: The Philosphy of Art.

It is here that you will find such terms as a priori, Aristotelian(ism), Existentialism, logic, and the like.

There are certain things that have been given a bum rap or commonly accepted without question:

To best understnd my approach to this; consider this hierarchic view of the knowledge structure of the Unieverse, not in terms of value, but in terms of level of complexity and abstract thinking. As you see, each is built upon and follows from the preceeding one. with the ultimate source being observations of things. You will also note that it ends with a projection of theworld and human action in observablel terms: Art. The list of the major sciences I use in this scheme of thins does not invalidate other sciences like Astronomy or Medicine, it is only to indicate a "spine" or linear progression from the less abstract, more specific to the most abstract and least specific along a scale of abstractions, nor is one superior to the other, it simply presupposes and extends the material therein to "the next level", for which, in each case, the foregoing is the root. Before you can have substances that interact with each other, you need time, space, energy and matter, There is a certain group of chemical reactions that are unique to living things. Many living things have adjustable components to their behavior that can be accessed by physical means throught the senses. In some living beings this can be stored as an overview of the mechanisms of the world. Given the nature of these mechanisms, including those of storing and using what is stored, there is a valid and invalid approach to this. This methodology points to how we can best discern what we must, ough, may, may not, ough not and must not do to retain a proper relationship with the wrold and the things in it, especially each other. From this we discern what ought not be allowed and what we may expect to be allowed to do. Finally all of this points to a way to express the ideal world (utopia) and the anti-ideal world (dystopia) in terms that are graspable in an immediate way.

Why is all that worth a damn? Well, If you don't run your life then someone else will run it for you. If you don't know what your resources are and how to use them than you cannot run your life.

But Why Do I Need This Junk?
For most of the things in this universe, like air, water, rock or sand. their existence, barring something really drastic, is a given and will always be so. For some things that is not the case. Fire needs a supply of heat, fuel and oxygen. take any of those away and the fire goes out or "dies". an electric or electronic device needs to be in proper working order and plugged in. a motor needs fuel, coolant, air and the parts kept in order. For living things, being alive at any moment is a given. Staying alive is a different matter. part of being alive is to be able to, by internal processes, acquire the things it needs to continue living. Plants use chemicals called auxins to maintain their orientation toword light. Animals have built-in processes and some "programmability" to maintian their lives. However, plants and animals have a limited level of awareness of the external world. When a plant or animal becomes diseased, it sickens or dies. Overcome physically the same. "When an animal is attacked from beyond it's range of awarenss it dies" is how Ayn Rand put it.

Man is fundamentally diffeent in the way he operates. He has no sharp killing teetn, no razor claws, no immense physical strength. He is the most generalized biological form there is. To date, no preset human guidance system has been found: Nor will there be, the human physical form is too generalized to allow for it. I can do an infinite number of things with my hands. I can see across thousands of lightyears with my eyes (or in my case; eye) There are thousands of things to eat (so much chocolate, so little time;[sigh]). And I gotta learn all that crap, too. Beyond that, I can make instruments and machines to sense and do what I cannot. We can make knives of different sorts to slice and dice in several ways, Telescopes show detail of things far away while microscopes show us the world of the itsy-bitsy. We even use other living things that are bred and/or trained for things likd bomb-sniffing dogs, cows that give milk from which we can get liquid spider web material. Most of the corn we grow is inedible but we use it for other things. We are on the verge of breeding "gasoline trees". A naturally preset system could not handle all of that. There is no automatic physical or psychological mechanism to ensure Man's sruvival. He is born, according to the best minds, tabula rasa; with a clean slate.

Man needs to figure out and test what he learns about things. Beyond that, there are so many things to figure out and test, he could not survive having to figure out and test everything. So, he needs a way to figure out and test the process of figuring out and testing. Underlying the Special Sciences, though not stated, is the way the world works (Metaphysics), Underlying the act of solving problems are the twin questions "what do I know? How do I know it?" (Epistemology). Underlying choice in behavior is the question "Since I cannot live by brute physical means, what is right or wrong? How do I find out?"(Ethics). Given that we can acquire specialized knowledge and skills that we can trade with others for theirs. the question of "How do we best govern ourselves?" (Politics) arises. Givent that we are sensory creatures the question of presentation of our values in an immediately discernable way arises (Esthetics). Ironically, Esthetics deals, as does Physics, wht the directly observable, Art is grasped throught the senses. Paintings are looked at, music is heard, fiction is read with the eyes plays are seen and heard, Sculpture is looked at but touch is implied and so forth.

Hey; you know what we just did? We validated Philosophy. Now Philosphy will not tell you if you are in Iraq or Utah, it will not tell you how to build a moon rocket or cure leprosy, or even if such is possible, it will not tell you the state of a war that you are fighting, or if you should have started it. What it will tell you is how to figure it out. Let me requote Ayn Rand here "When an animal is attacked from beyond it's range of awareness, it dies". Philosophy is the means by which, in the general sense, we broaden the range of, and, take to the next level, our awareness as a species and then impart that to individual persons. That, in a nutshell is the "what for" of philosophy.

In regards to just how close Philosophy is to Psychology. You look at the worst examples of bad philosophy, Naziism, Communism, overly zealous religions or the stuff you hear on Art Bell and it looks akin to insanity and we call the adherents of such "madmen" (the problem whith religion is that, since Kant, there is no way to discerne what the proper limits of literal interpretation such that it can consume a person). My big attractio to Ayn Rand was not her fiction nor the philosphy, I had already accepted the supremecy of Reason as the tool of knowledge: it was her concept of a "sense of life" and her understanding of how that runs the psychology of children and becomes the subconscious "navigation and guidence systm" ("...most Americans' unacknowledged implicit philosophy is far better than their explicit one"--Ayn Rand). For adults. When I read those, they explained perfectly my attachment to Space Patrol. The whole occult things are now called "parapsychology" and "paranormal". The Communist spent decades trying to perfect the New Soviet Man. In politics today we toss around such terms as "worldview", "mindset" and 'vision". The Special Sciences, each in its own way and by its own means, is trying to connect to the "soul" on its own terms; and failing utterly becuase that is not in their baileywick. This has been a start, a mere orientation. Now it's up to you to NOW, STEP UP TO THE HEAVY HITTERS
Since they don't really give you much of a framework to go by, here are some keywords to look up to get you started along with what you've already read. NAMES: Thales, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotis, Montaigne, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Hume, Hobbes, John Locke Edmund Burke, Immanual Kant, Voltaire, Rousseau, Hagel, John Stuart Mill, Charles Sanders Pierce, Josiah Royce, Hanry James, Kierkegaard, John Dewey, Bertram Russel, Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, Alber Camus, Ayn Rand
CONCEPTS: Hedonism, Stoicism, Reason, Logic, logical fallacies, a priori, Utilitarianism, Existentialism, Aristotelian, causality, Rationalism, Empiricism, Pragmatism, nihilism, dogma, doctrine, methodology,

then If you want to get brave, you can google up these names and terms.